proof


proof
The effect of evidence; the establishment of a fact by evidence. New England Newspaper Pub. Co. v. Bonner, C.C.A.Mass., 77 F.2d 915, 916.
Any fact or circumstance which leads the mind to the affirmative or negative of any proposition. The conviction or persuasion of the mind of a judge or jury, by the exhibition of evidence, of the reality of a fact alleged. Ellis v. WolfeShoemaker Motor Co., 227 Mo.App. 508, 55 S.W.2d 309.
The establishment by evidence of a requisite degree of belief concerning a fact in the mind of the trier of fact or the court. Calif. Evidence Code, No. 190.
See also burden of going forward
- burden of persuasion
- burden of producing evidence
- burden of proof
- degree of proof
- reasonable doubt
Evidence and proof distinguished.
Proof is the logically sufficient reason for assenting to the truth of a proposition advanced. In its juridical sense it is a term of wide import, and comprehends everything that may be adduced at a trial, within the legal rules, for the purpose of producing conviction in the mind of judge or jury, aside from mere argument; that is, everything that has a probative force intrinsically, and not merely as a deduction from, or combination of, original probative facts.
But "evidence" is a narrower term, and includes only such kinds of proof as may be legally presented at a trial, by the act of the parties, and through the aid of such concrete facts as witnesses, records, or other documents.
Thus, to urge a presumption of law in support of one's case is adducing proof, but it is not offering evidence.
"Belief is a subjective condition resulting from proof. It is a conviction of the truth of a proposition, existing in the mind, and induced by persuasion, proof, or argument addressed to the judgment. Proof is the result or effect of evidence, while evidence is the medium or means by which a fact is proved or disproved, but the words "proof and "evidence" may be used interchangeably.
Proof is the perfection of evidence; for without evidence there is no proof, although there may be evidence which does not amount to proof; for example, if a man is found murdered at a spot where another has been seen walking but a short time before, this fact will be evidence to show that the latter was the murderer, but, standing alone, will be very far from proof of it.
- burden of proof
- preliminary proof
- proof evident or presumption great
@ affirmative proof
Evidence establishing the fact in dispute by a preponderance of the evidence.
+ affirmative proof
Such evidence of the truth of matters asserted as tends to establish them, regardless of character of evidence offered
@ degree of proof
Refers to effect of evidence rather than medium by which truth is established, and in this sense expressions "preponderance of evidence" and "proof beyond reasonable doubt" are used.
+ degree of proof
That measure of cogency required to prove a case depending upon the nature of the case. In a criminal case such proof must be beyond a reasonable doubt, whereas in most civil cases such proof is by a fair preponderance of the evidence.
See also burden of proof
- proof (proof beyond a reasonable doubt)
- reasonable doubt
@ full proof
In the civil law, proof by two witnesses, or a public instrument. Evidence which satisfies the minds of the jury of the truth of the fact in dispute, to the entire exclusion of every reasonable doubt.
- proof
@ half proof
See half.
@ negative proof
See positive proof, below
@ positive proof
Direct or affirmative proof. That which directly establishes the fact in question; as opposed to negative proof, which establishes the fact by showing that its opposite is not or cannot be true
@
- preliminary proof
@ proof beyond a reasonable doubt
Such proof as precludes every reasonable hypothesis except that which it tends to support and which is wholly consistent with defendant's guilt and inconsistent with any other rational conclusion. State v. Dubina, 164 Conn. 95, 318 A.2d 95, 97.
Such is the required standard of proof in criminal cases.
See also reasonable doubt
Compare probable cause
@ proof evident
@ presumption great
@ proof evident or presumption great
proof evident or presumption great
As used in constitutional provisions that accused shall be bailable unless for capital offenses when the "proof is evident" or "presumption great," means evidence clear and strong, and which leads well guarded, dispassionate judgment to conclusion that accused committed offense and will be punished capitally. Ex parte Coward, 145 Tex.Cr.R. 593, 170 S.W.2d 754, 755; Ex parte Goode, 123 Tex.Cr.R. 492, 59 S.W.2d 841
@ proof of claim
Statement under oath filed in a bankruptcy proceeding by a creditor in which the creditor sets forth the amount owed and sufficient detail to identify the basis for the claim. Also used in probate proceedings to submit the amount owed by the decedent to the creditor and filed with the court for payment by the fiduciary.
See Bankruptcy Code No. 501
@ proof of debt
The formal establishment by a creditor of his debt or claim, in some prescribed manner (as, by his affidavit or otherwise), as a preliminary to its allowance, along with others, against an estate or property to be divided, such as the estate of a bankrupt or insolvent, a deceased person or a firm or company in liquidation.
See proof of claim, above
@ proof of loss
A formal statement made by the policyowner to the insurer regarding a loss, intended to give insurer enough information to enable it to determine the extent of its liability under a policy or bond
@ proof of service
Evidence submitted by a process server that he has made service on a defendant in an action. It is also called a return of service. Fed.R.Civil P. 4
@ proof of will
A term having the same meaning as "probate," (q.v.), and used interchangeably with it. Standard of proof. A statement of how convincing the evidence must be in order for a party to comply with his/her burden of proof. The main standards of proof are: proof beyond a reasonable doubt (in criminal cases only), proof by clear and convincing evidence, and proof by a preponderance of the evidence
@

Black's law dictionary. . 1990.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • proof — n [alteration of Middle English preove, from Old French preuve, from Late Latin proba, from Latin probare to prove] 1: the effect of evidence sufficient to persuade a reasonable person that a particular fact exists see also evidence 2: the… …   Law dictionary

  • Proof — • The establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Proof     Proof      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Proof — Proof, a. [1913 Webster] 1. Used in proving or testing; as, a proof load, or proof charge. [1913 Webster] 2. Firm or successful in resisting; as, proof against harm; waterproof; bombproof. [1913 Webster] I . . . have found thee Proof against all… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Proof — may refer to: * A rigorous, compelling argument ** Formal proof ** Mathematical proof ** Proof theory, a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects ** Logical argument ** Evidence (law), tested evidence or… …   Wikipedia

  • proof´er — proof «proof», noun, adjective, verb. –n. 1. a way or means of showing beyond doubt the truth of something: »Is what you say a guess, or have you proof? SYNONYM(S): See syn. under evidence. (Cf. ↑evidence) 2. the establishment of the truth of… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Proof — Proof, n. [OF. prove, proeve, F. preuve, fr. L. proba, fr. probare to prove. See {Prove}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Any effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial. [1913 Webster]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • proof — [pro͞of] n. [ME profe < OFr prueve < LL proba < L probare: see PROBE] 1. the act or process of proving; a testing or trying of something 2. anything serving or tending to establish the truth of something, or to convince one of its truth; …   English World dictionary

  • proof — ► NOUN 1) evidence establishing a fact or the truth of a statement. 2) the proving of the truth of a statement. 3) a series of stages in the resolution of a mathematical or philosophical problem. 3) archaic a test or trial. 4) Printing a trial… …   English terms dictionary

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  • proof — [n1] evidence, authentication affidavit, argument, attestation, averment, case, certification, chapter and verse*, clincher*, clue, confirmation, corroboration, credentials, criterion, cue*, data, demonstration, deposition, documents,… …   New thesaurus


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